"We look at what has and what has not worked in other countries," Heinman adds. We know that Forced Marriage Protection Orders there have proved life-saving for women.
First and foremost, we're pushing US government entities, including the State Department and Health and Human Services, to take these situations seriously and not be dismissive.
But if you do not follow through on a marriage, you are not fulfilling your expected role, and the consequences can be devastating.
What this means is that you are, in fact, forced in terms of societal pressure.
Problems arise when someone is intellectually curious, has questions or is highly individualistic.
In Pakistani culture, we say that love comes after marriage and that religion, faith in God, is the most important bond. Of course I will see the guy beforehand and can say 'no' if I don't like him, but if my family has chosen him, I have to trust that it will be okay. Part of the problem, she says, rests with changed community norms.
"My husband and I dated from December 1978 to May 1979, then got engaged, and our engagement lasted for almost a year.
"They want me to focus on my education first," she says, "and get a bachelors degree.
Then, they'll look for a guy who respects women, is nice and has the same religious beliefs as we do. It's the way our culture works." Chana Klein [a pseudonym] met her husband 35 years ago, after someone told her father that he knew a young man he believed would be a good match for her. Chana and her mate are now the parents of two and grandparents of five; nonetheless, she is critical of what she calls the Orthodox community's "hit-and-miss solution to dating and marriage" and is adamant that dating arrangements -whether using a professional matchmaker or through friends who suggest an introduction - is deeply flawed.