For example, 'illegal adoption' could constitute a form of child trafficking if it involved a person seeking a child for adoption into their family with the intention of exploiting that child.Children are also affected where their parents are the primary victims of trafficking.In the case of US, the results of the survey suggest that ease of learning the local language and adapting to the local culture are areas in which the US fares well as an expat destination – despite low scores in organising finances and health care.Canada, Bermuda and South Africa were helped to the top of the list because more than 80 percent of the expats surveyed there say they are native English speakers.A small number of respondents from UN agencies and international non-government organisations involved in trafficking and related areas were asked to review 10 case scenarios and determine whether or not trafficking had occurred.Each scenario was constructed to ascertain the expert's analysis of the elements of trafficking as they apply to children.Together with the growing use of technology in offending, these issues suggest a level of risk for children in the region that is of relevance to Australian efforts to address trafficking in persons.This paper reflects key findings from a review of the available literature on the issue of child trafficking in both Asia and the Pacific.
Further, although there have been no prosecutions for child trafficking in Australia, the risk experienced by children within the Asia–Pacific region is relevant to responses in Australia and in supporting the development of improved inter-country responses across the region.
Trafficking in children (persons under the age of 18 years) is defined in Article 3 of the Trafficking Protocol (UN 2000) as involving two elements—.
'Exploitation' includes, at a minimum, exploiting the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal or organs.
It includes observations on issues such as the forms of child trafficking observed in these regions, factors associated with vulnerability to trafficking and the issue of 'good practice' in the protection of children from this crime.
This paper concludes by noting some of the gaps in the existing literature.